CAIRO – 12 January 2022: Egypt became part of the Macedonian Empire after the victory of Alexander the Great over the Persian king Dara III in 332 BC.
After the death of Alexander in 323 BC and the division of his empire, Egypt came to the rule of Ptolemy I Soter, who made Egypt an independent kingdom known as the Ptolemaic State.
Ptolemy I completed the construction of the new capital of Egypt, Alexandria. He also began building the Lighthouse of Alexandria and gathered all of the Egyptian and Greek priests in order to establish a new faith that united the Egyptians and the Greeks.
During the reign of his successor, Ptolemy II, arts and sciences flourished, and the ancient Library of Alexandria was established. The ancient Library of Alexandria was the largest library in the ancient world, which led to the influx of Greek scientists and thinkers to Egypt and increased cultural pluralism and merged the civilization of the new Greeks with the ancient Egyptian civilization.
Various Greek settlements were also established in Egypt during the Ptolemaic period, creating several central areas for the Greek citizens who came to Egypt with their culture and traditions, such as “Ptolemaic” in Upper Egypt, “Philadelphia” in Fayoum and “Naucratis” which was the first Greek settlement and a center for trade between Egyptians and Greeks in Egypt’s Delta; it was established during the Late Period.
The Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities mentioned that in the ancient capital of Memphis, the Greek settlers established their settlement around the main temple of Ptah in the early Ptolemaic period.
The rule of the Ptolemies in Egypt came to a tragic end when the Romans defeated them in the Battle of Actium 31 BC, which led to the suicide of Queen Cleopatra VII and the killing of her son, Ptolemy Caesarion XV.