Protesters opposing Egyptian President Mohamed Mursi wave Egyptian flags and shout slogans against him and members of the Muslim Brotherhood at Tahrir square in Cairo, June 30, 2013. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh
CAIRO – 28 June 2020: In 2012, Mohamed Morsi, the Muslim Brotherhood’s candidate for Presidency won elections, but a year later, massive protests, in cooperation with the Armed Forces, ousted him. Based on the 2013 Revolution, the referendum was amended and the Muslim Brotherhood was outlawed.
“I stick to legitimacy and I stand as its guardian and my life is its cost. I want to secure children, girls, mothers and men”.
These words were part of a 45-minute speech by late President Mohamed Morsi, two days after millions of protests took to streets to end his term, three years before the end of his four-year term. However, his words did not make any change and he left office a day later.
Morsi died in June, 2019, as he collapsed in court, while attending one of his trials.
In a televised statement on July 3, Abdel Fattah El Sisi, then defense minister, announced the ousting of Morsi and the suspension of the 2012 Constitution. The president of the Supreme Constitutional Court, Adly Masnour, was ordered to take over presidency until early elections are held.
The June 30 Revolution in 2013 followed, or were encouraged by, Tamarud movement, a grassroots protest movement that was established to foster opposition against Morsi. Tamarud was tasked with collecting 15 million signatures by June 30 to be able to oust the president. Later, it claimed it collected even more, but failed to introduce any evidence proving the counting process was legitimate or accurate.
Nevertheless, millions of protesters managed to encourage the Armed Forces to meet the protests’ top demand and put an end to Morsi’s term. Protesters considered Morsi a puppet controlled by the Muslim Brotherhood group that he has joined since 1979, complaining that the group is the actual ruler.
“The Armed Forces could not turn a deaf ear or a blind eye to the movement and the appeal of the masses of people,” Sisi said in the statement, adding that the Armed Forces “based on their national and historical responsibility consulted with some symbols of national and political powers and youth, without excluding anyone”.
“Participants agreed on a future roadmap that includes initial steps to successfully build a strong and solid Egyptian society that does not exclude one of its sons or currents and ends the state of conflict and division”.
Late in July 2013, then Colonel General Abdel Fatah al-Sisi called on Egyptians to gather in the streets to "empower" him to fight terrorism. Subsequently, people appeared in the streets reportedly in millions.
On August 14, security forces dispersed the Rabaa Al-Adawiya and Al-Nahda sit-ins in Cairo, organized by the Muslim Brotherhood and their supporters, following reports about the presence of weapons and other violations among protesters.
Authorities delayed clearing the two protest camps as internal and external reconciliation process was established to resolve the crisis peacefully.
As a result, hundreds died during the dispersal of the two protests, including policemen and protesters. The two parties hold each other responsible for the violence.
As the Muslim Brotherhood era’s 2012 constitution was suspended, a committee of 10 legal experts was formed with the aim of amending this constitution. The committee managed to accomplish its mission in August 2013, during the term of acting President Adly Mansour.
Mansour formed a committee of 50 people and their names were announced in September. The 50 members represented different institutions including Al-Azhar and the church. In December 2013, the committee introduced the final draft of the constitution for referendum.
Although former military spokesman Ahmed Ali affirmed in September 2013 that Sisi has denied many times the step to run for president, about 10 months after the 2013 protests, Sisi announced taking the step after resigning from his military post.
Before the 2015 presidential election was held, the Muslim Brotherhood defamed Sisi and used various forms of propaganda against him, including graffiti.
However, Muslim Brotherhood members could not agree to vote for the Egyptian Popular Current Chairman Hamdeen Sabahi, who ran solely against Sisi in the election, as Sabahi was one of the main opposition leaders during Morsi’s era.
Sabahi belonged to the National Front, which was formed in November 2012. The National Front opposed Morsi’s decrees and called for protesting against the latter in June 30.
On July 3, 2014, Judge Anwar al-Asi, head of the presidential election committee, said that Sisi won 96.9 percent of votes, with a turnout of 47.45 percent.