The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 was effectively a coup d’état by a group of army officers known as the “Free Officers.” The revolution is alternately known as the “23 July Revolution.”
The goal of the revolution was to overthrow King Farouk and his son, to remove any remnants of British influence in the government, and to end the monarchy and create a republic in Egypt.
The "Free Officers Movement" was created by Gamal Abdel Nasser, the second President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, succeeding General Mohammed Nagib, who was only president briefly.
Anwar Sadat, who succeeded Nasser, was one of the Free Officers and gave the first statement of the revolution over the radio, announcing the cancellation of the monarchy in Nagib’s name.
The 1952 Revolution is known for its redistribution of land rights. One of the new government’s first acts was to issue a land reform law, which said landowners could not hold more than 200 acres of land. It decreed that the rest of their estates should be divided among Egypt’s poor, in an attempt to end the feudal system.
During Nagib’s short presidency Egypt began negotiating the future of Sudan with Britain and implementing a number of reforms. However, the Revolutionary Council soon relieved him of his position and installed Nasser as President of Egypt.