FILE - Egypt’s former president Hosni Mubarak (1928 - 2020)
CAIRO – 26 February 2020: Egypt’s former president Hosni Mubarak, who became the country’s longest-serving ruler in more than 150 years before resigning from office by popular demand, died on Tuesday at the age of 91.
Egypt Today shares with its readers key highlights from Mubarak’s three speeches during the January 25 revolution that demanded the former president’s ousting.
His first speech on Jan. 28, 2011
“I have been closely following the protests and what they were asking for and calling on. My instructions to the government have stressed on providing it with an opportunity to express the opinions and demands of the citizens.
“There is a fine line between freedom and chaos and I lean toward freedom for the people in expressing their opinions as much as I hold on to the need to maintain Egypt’s safety and stability.
“I have asked the government to present its resignation today and I will name a new government starting from tomorrow ... to effectively deal with the priorities of this current phase.
“I will defend Egypt’s safety and stability and its people’s wishes, for that is the responsibility and the trust endowed in me when I swore an oath in front of God and the nation to protect it.”
His 2nd speech on Feb. 1, 2011
"I talk to you during critical times that are testing Egypt and its people which could sweep them into the unknown. The country is passing through difficult times and tough experiences which began with noble youths and citizens who practice their rights to peaceful demonstrations and protests, expressing their concerns and aspirations but they were quickly exploited by those who sought to spread chaos and violence, confrontation and to violate the constitutional legitimacy and to attack it.
“The events of the last few days require us all as a people and as a leadership to chose between chaos and stability and to set in front of us new circumstances and a new Egyptian reality which our people and armed forces must work with wisely and in the interest of Egypt and its citizens.
“Dear brothers and citizens, I took the initiative of forming a new government with new priorities and duties that respond to the demand of our youth and their mission. I entrusted the vice president with the task of holding dialogue with all the political forces and factions about all the issues that have been raised concerning political and democratic reform and the constitutional and legislative amendments required to realize these legitimate demands and to restore law and order but there are some political forces who have refused this call to dialogue, sticking to their particular agendas without concern for the current delicate circumstances of Egypt and its people.
“I say in all honesty and regardless of the current situation that I did not intend to nominate myself for a new presidential term. I have spent enough years of my life in the service of Egypt and its people.
“I am now absolutely determined to finish my work for the nation in a way that ensures handing over its safe-keeping and banner … preserving its legitimacy and respecting the constitution.
“I will work in the remaining months of my term to take the steps to ensure a peaceful transfer of power.”
His 3rd speech on Feb. 1, 2011
“My sons, the youth of Egypt, brother citizens, I have unequivocally declared that I will not run for president in the next elections, satisfied with what I’ve offered my country in over 60 years during war and peace.
I declared my commitment to that, as well as my equal commitment to carrying out my responsibility in protecting the constitution and the people’s interests until power and responsibility are handed over to whoever is elected in next September, following free and candid elections with guarantees of freedom and candor.
This is the oath I took before God and my country and one which I will keep until we take Egypt and its people to a safe harbor.
I have set a defined vision to come out of this crisis and to carry out what the citizens and the youth have called for in a way that would respect the constitutional legitimacy and not undermine it.
It will be carried out in a way that would bring stability to our society and achieve the demands of its youth, and, at the same time, propose an agreed-upon framework for a peaceful transfer of power through responsible dialogue with all factions of society and with utmost sincerity and transparency.
Yesterday, I got the first report on the top priority constitutional amendments proposed by the committee of the justice system and law experts and that I have set up to look into the required constitutional and legislative amendments.
In response to the proposals in the committee’s report, and in compliance with the prerogatives of the president of the republic, in conformity with Article 189 of the constitution, I have submitted a request today asking for the amendment of six constitutional clauses: 76, 77, 88, 93 and 189, in addition to the annulment of clause 179.
Moreover, I am asserting my readiness to submit, at a later time, an (additional) request to change any other clauses referred to me by the constitutional committee, according to the needs and justifications it sees fit.
These top-priority amendments aim to ease the conditions for presidential nominations, and the fixing of limited terms of the presidency to ensure the rotation of power, and the strengthening of the regulations of elections oversight to guarantee their freedom and fairness.
It is in the judiciary’s prerogative to decide about the validity and membership of MPs and amend the conditions and measures on the amendment of the constitution.”