CAIRO – 19 January 2022: The history of the Mamluk Bahri State (648-792 AH – 1250-1390 AD) spans back to its founder Sultan Najm al-Din Ayyub, who brought the Mamluks and built a fortress for them on Rawda Island in 638 AH.
The Mamluk Bahri State is divided into two families: the family of al-Zahir Baybars al-Bandaqdari, who ruled Egypt for 17 years, and the family of al-Mansur Qalawun.
Al-Zahir Baybars made several administrative amendments, including the revival of the Abbasid Caliphate and the transfer of its headquarters to Cairo in 658 AH.
Meanwhile, the rule of Al-Nasir Mohammad bin Qalawun, who was close to half a century of rule, is considered the most brilliant era of the Bahri Mamluks, according to the website of the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities.
Several rulers succeeded in ruling Egypt after Al-Nasir Mohammad. Most of them were young, so the army leaders controlled them. This remained the case until Prince Barquq, the founder of the Circassian Mamluk state, appeared.
Al-Nasir Mohammad ibn Qalawun is the ninth sultan of the Mamluk Maritime (Bahri) State. He lived during the era of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Hakim Bi-Amr Allah I, Caliph Suleiman Al-Mustaqfi Billah and Caliph Ibrahim Al-Wathiq Billah.
He reigned on the throne of the Mamluk Sultanate three times in the periods from 693 AH (1293 AD) to 694 AH (1294 AD), from 698 AH (1299 AD) to 708 AH (1309 AD), and from 709 AH (1309 AD) until his death in 741 AH (1341 AD).
Mohammad bin Qalawun is one of the most prominent sultans of the Qalawun Dynasty and the Mamluk State. He fought wars against the Crusaders and Mongols, and reformist wars at home against corruption.
During his rule, Egypt witnessed a civilized and urban renaissance that it did not witness during the reign of any other sultans of the Mamluk state.